TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.
Why TPM ?
TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.
- Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.
- Producing goods without reducing product quality.
- Reduce cost.
- Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.
- Goods send to the customers must be non defective.
Similarities and differences between TQM and TPM:
The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM. Following are the similarities between the two.
- Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programmes
- Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and
A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.
The differences between TQM and TPM is summarized below.
Types of maintenance:
1. Breakdown maintenance:
It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.
2. Preventive maintenance ( 1951 ):
It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening ), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.
2a. Periodic maintenance ( Time based maintenance - TBM):
Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems.
2b. Predictive maintenance:
This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.
3. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 ):
It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability
4. Maintenance prevention ( 1960 ):
It indicates the design of a new equipment. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied (on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing ) and is incorporated before commissioning a new equipment
The Evolution of TPM:
TPM is a innovative Japanese concept. The origin of TPM can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960. Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein, operators produced goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated with work of maintaining those machines, however with the automation of Nippondenso, maintenance became a problem as more maintenance personnel were required. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators. ( This is Autonomous maintenance, one of the features of TPM ). Maintenance group took up only essential maintenance works.
Thus Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators. The maintenance crew was released of their routine maintenance task and they carried out equipment modification for improving reliability and maintainability. The modifications were made or incorporated in new equipment. These task are aimed at maintenance prevention (MP). Thus preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance (PM). The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.
By then Nippondenso had made quality circles, involving the employees participation. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance. Based on these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM, by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers ( JIPE ). Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certification.
Obtain Minimum 80% OPE.
Obtain Minimum 90% OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness )
Run the machines even during lunch. ( Lunch is for operators and not for machines ! )
Operate in a manner, so that there are no customer complaints.
Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%.
Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer.
Maintain a accident free environment.
Increase the suggestions by 3 times. Develop Multi-skilled and flexible workers.
OPE (Overall Plant Efficiency):
It is a function of three factors namely Management losses, Scheduled downtime loss and OEE (discussed in detail in the subsequent paragraph). Management losses include losses due to want of tools, want of raw materials, want of trays, want of men etc. Scheduled downtime includes any JH activity, Preventive maintenance activity or meetings.
OEE ( Overall Equipment Efficiency ):
The basic measure associated with Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is the OEE. This OEE highlights the actual "Hidden capacity" in a organization. OEE is not an exclusive measure of how well the maintenance department works. The design and installation of equipment as well as how it is operated and maintained affect the OEE. It measures both efficiency (doing things right) and effectiveness (doing the right things) with the equipment. It incorporates three basic indicators of equipment performance and reliability. Thus OEE is a function of the three factors mentioned below.
- Availability or uptime (downtime: planned and unplanned, tool change, tool service, job change etc.)
- Performance efficiency (actual vs. design capacity)
- Rate of quality output (Defects and rework)
Thus OEE = A x PE x Q
A - Availability of the machine. Availability is proportion of time machine is actually available out of time it should be available.
Availability = (Planned production time + unscheduled downtime)
Planned production time
Production time = Planned production time + Downtime
Gross available hours for production include 365 days per year, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. However this is a ideal condition. Planned downtime includes vacation, holidays, and not enough loads. Availability losses include equipment failures and changeovers indicating situations when the line is not running although it is expected to run.
PE - Performance Efficiency. The second category of OEE is performance. The formula can be expressed in this way:
Performance (Speed) = (Cycle time x Number of products processed)
Net production time is the time during which the products are actually produced. Speed losses, small stops, idling, and empty positions in the line indicate that the line is running, but it is not providing the quantity it should.
Q - Refers to quality rate. Which is percentage of good parts out of total produced sometimes called yield. Quality losses refer to the situation when the line is producing, but there are quality losses due to in-progress production and warm up rejects. In terms of quality rate, there are two theories of accounting for product defects. The first theory contends that quality defects upstream of the constraining machine affect the output of the line or process only if they starve the constraining machine for material. Quality defects at or downstream of the constraining machine do affect the potential output of the line or process and should be counted against the quality rate.
Quality experts and the concept of zero state that any quality defect is unacceptable and we should attempt to penalize our performance indicators for all quality defects whether they are upstream or downstream of the constraining machine. This concept is valid, but some quality defects do cost more than others. When resources are limited, more severe quality issues should be addressed before those of less severity. Quality issues downstream of the constraining machine are more severe than those upstream and therefore should be of higher priority. We can express a formula for quality like this:
Quality (Yield) = (Number of products processed � Number of products rejected)
(Number of products processed)
A simple example on how OEE is figured for a critical piece of equipment is shown below.
- Running 70 percent of the time (in a 24-hour day)
- Operating at 72 percent of design capacity (flow, cycles, units per hour)
- Producing quality output 99 percent of the time
When the three factors are considered together (70% availability x 72% efficiency x 99% quality), the result is an overall equipment effectiveness rating of 49.9 percent.
Example of OEE calculation
Given below is the details that contain shift data to be used for a complete OEE calculation (Including calculation of the three contributing factors of availability, performance, and quality)
- Planned production time = Shift length � breaks = 480 � 15 � 15 � 30 = 420 Minutes
- Operating time = Planned production time � Downtime = 420 � 50 = 370 Minutes
- Good pieces = Pieces produced � Reject pieces = 20,225 � 503 = 19,722 Pieces
- Availability = Operating time / Planned production time = 370 Minutes / 420 Minutes = 0.881 (88.1%)
- Performance (Speed) = Pieces produced / (Ideal rate x Operating time) = 20,225 / 70 x 370 = 0.781 (78.1%)
- Quality = Good pieces / Pieces = 19,722 / 20,225 = 0.975 (97.5%)
OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality = 0.881 x 0.781 x 0.975 = 0.671 (67.1%)
Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization
Step A - PREPARATORY STAGE :
STEP 1 - Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization:
Proper understanding, commitment and active involvement of the top management in needed for this step. Senior management should have awareness programmes, after which announcement is made to all. Publish it in the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Send a letter to all concerned individuals.
STEP 2 - Initial education and propaganda for TPM:
Training is to be done based on the need. Some need intensive training and some just an awareness. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented.
STEP 3 - Setting up TPM and departmental committees:
TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance etc., as part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs.
STEP 4 - Establishing the TPM working system and target:
Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement.
STEP 5 - A master plan for institutionalizing:
Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level.
STEP B - INTRODUCTION STAGE
This is a ceremony and we should invite all. Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers, sisters concerns etc. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output.
STAGE C - IMPLEMENTATION
In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity.
Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency, one for initial control system of new products and equipment, one for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety, sanitation as working environment.
STAGE D - INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE
By all there activities one would has reached maturity stage. Now is the time for applying for PM award. Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement.
Organization Structure for TPM Implementation :
Pillars of TPM
PILLAR 1 - 5S:
TPM starts with 5S. It is a systematic process of house keeping to achieve a serene environment in the work place involving the employees with a commitment to sincerely implement and practice house keeping. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement. If this 5S is not taken up seriously, then it leads to 5D. They are Delays, Defects, Dissatisfied customers, Declining profits and Demoralized employees.
SEITON - Organize:
The concept here is that "Each items has a place, and only one place". The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks. The aim is to arrange items, so that it is in easy reach.
SEISO - Shine the workplace:
This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines.
SEIKETSU - Standardization:
Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. This standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly.
SHITSUKE - Self discipline:
Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.
PILLAR 2 - JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance ):
This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.
- Uninterrupted operation of equipments.
- Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments.
- Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation.
- Focus on Kaizen and small group activities
Stepwise implementation of JH activities.
JISHU HOZEN Targets:
- Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH.
- Reduce oil consumption by 50%
- Reduce process time by 50%
Increase use of JH by 50% (Lubrication / coolant / hydraulic)
Steps in JISHU HOZEN:
- Preparation of employees.
- Initial cleanup of machines.
- Take counter measures
- Fix tentative JH standards
- General inspection
- Autonomous inspection
- Standardization and
- Autonomous management.
Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below.
1. Train the Employees :
Educate the employees about TPM, Its advantages, JH advantages and Steps in JH. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments.
2. Initial cleanup of machines :
- Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1
- Arrange all items needed for cleaning
- On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department.
- Dust, stains, oils and grease has to be removed.
- Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning. They are Oil leakage, loose wires, unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts.
- After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White tags is place where problems can be solved by operators. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed.
- Contents of tag is transferred to a register.
- Make note of area which were inaccessible.
Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.
3. Counter Measures :
- Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. E.g. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine, acrylic sheets (It is transparent) can be used.
- To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken.
- Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust.
4. Tentative Standard :
- JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly.
Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when, what and how.
5. General Inspection:
- The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics, electrical, hydraulics, lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and Safety.
- This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly.
- After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others.
By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well aware of machine parts.
6. Autonomous Inspection:
- New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used.
- Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor.
- Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience.
- Including good quality machine parts. This avoid defects due to poor JH.
- Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH.
The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience. However daily inspection points should not be neglected.
- Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. Necessary items should be organized, such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced.
- Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item.
- Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly.
- Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured.
8. Autonomous Management:
- OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen.
- PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.
PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN :
"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are move effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.
Kaizen Policy :
- Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.
- relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources
- Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness.
- Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.
Focus of easy handling of operators.
Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction.
Tools used in Kaizen:
- PM analysis
- Why - Why analysis
- Summary of losses
- Kaizen register
- Kaizen summary sheet.
The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate losses. Initially there were 6 major losses that were identified. Details of which is given below.
- Equipment failure causes production downtime. Equipment failure requires maintenance assistance and can be prevented with the use of appropriate preventive maintenance actions, developed and applied operating procedures, and design changes. Most importantly, equipment failure requires an improvement effort that should be the result of a successful partnership between production and maintenance. Predictive maintenance techniques such as vibration, oil, and thermographic analysis can be used to anticipate equipment failure. If the failure occurs, it is important to use root cause failure analysis (RCFA) techniques to identify the root cause of the problem and effective and applicable solutions that will eliminate or mitigate the failure occurrence and impact.
- Setup and adjustments: this refers to loss of productive time between product types, and includes the warm-up after the actual changeover. Changeover time should be included in this loss opportunity and it should not be part of the planned downtime.
- Small stops are typically less than 5-10 minutes and they are typically minor adjustments or simple tasks such as cleaning. They should not be caused by logistics.
- Speed losses are caused when the equipment runs slower than its optimal or designed maximum speed. Examples include machine wear, substandard materials, operator inefficiency, equipment design not appropriate to the application, etc.
- Losses during production include all losses caused by less-than-acceptable quality after the warm-up period.
- Losses during warm-up include all losses caused by less-than-acceptable quality during the warm-up period.
However with the passage of time, more losses were added to the above list. Each organization has its own classification of losses. Given below is one such classification listing 16 types of losses.
This concept of Kaizen could also be applied to the Medical unit of the organisation. This program is titled as Total Participatory Medicine in some organizations. Again in that 16 losses are identified. They are listed below.
- Extra Salt
- Extra Sugar
- Over weigth
- Stress beyond limit
- Hasty decisions and
- Poor working habits.
Classification of losses:
PILLAR 4 - PLANNED MAINTENANCE:
It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which was defined earlier.
- Maintenance Prevention
With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment.
- Achieve and sustain availability of machines
- Optimum maintenance cost.
- Reduces spares inventory.
Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.
- Zero equipment failure and break down.
- Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 %
- Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %
- Ensure availability of spares all the time.
Six steps in Planned maintenance:
- Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.
- Restore deterioration and improve weakness.
- Building up information management system.
- Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan.
- Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and
- Evaluation of planned maintenance.
PILLAR 5 - QUALITY MAINTENANCE:
It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).
QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand.
- Defect free conditions and control of equipments
- QM activities to support quality assurance.
- Focus of prevention of defects at source
- Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system )
- In-line detection and segregation of defects.
- Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.
- Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero
- Reduce in-process defects by 50 %
- Reduce cost of quality by 50 %.
Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For customer-end data, we have to get data on
- Customer end line rejection
- Field complaints.
In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process
Data related to product:
- Product wise defects
- Severity of the defect and its contribution � major/minor
- Location of the defect with reference to the layout
- Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement
- Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. (Like pattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.)
- Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components.
Data related to processes:
- The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method, material and machine.
- The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process
- The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.
PILLAR 6 - TRAINING:
It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". By experience they gain, "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phase of skills are
Phase 1 : Do not know.
Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do.
Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach
Phase 4 : Can do and also teach.
- Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques.
- Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs.
- Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization
- Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.
- Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines.
- Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques
- Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme.
Steps in Educating and training activities :
- Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training.
- Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation.
- Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills.
- Preparation of training calendar.
- Kick-off of the system for training.
Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.
PILLAR 7 - OFFICE TPM:
Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM, PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. They are
- Processing loss
- Cost loss including in areas such as procurement, accounts, marketing, sales leading to high inventories
- Communication loss
- Idle loss
- Set-up loss
- Accuracy loss
- Office equipment breakdown
- Communication channel breakdown, telephone and fax lines
- Time spent on retrieval of information
- Non availability of correct on line stock status
- Customer complaints due to logistics
- Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases
How to start office TPM ?
A senior person from one of the support functions e.g. Head of Finance, MIS, Purchase etc should be heading the sub-committee. Members representing all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be included in sub committee. TPM co-ordinate plans and guides the sub committee.
- Providing awareness about office TPM to all support departments
- Helping them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in relation to plant performance
- Identify the scope for improvement in each function
- Collect relevant data
- Help them to solve problems in their circles
- Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides � results and actions along with Kaizens.
- Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions.
Kobetsu Kaizen topics for Office TPM:
- Inventory reduction
- Lead time reduction of critical processes
- Motion & space losses
- Retrieval time reduction.
- Equalizing the work load
- Improving the office efficiency by eliminating the time loss on retrieval of information, by achieving zero breakdown of office equipment like telephone and fax lines.
Office TPM and its Benefits:
- Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant performance
- Better utilized work area
- Reduce repetitive work
- Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain
- Reduced administrative costs
- Reduced inventory carrying cost
- Reduction in number of files
- Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non capital equipment)
- Productivity of people in support functions
- Reduction in breakdown of office equipment
- Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics
- Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases
- Reduced manpower
- Clean and pleasant work environment.
P Q C D S M in Office TPM :
P = Production output lost due to want of material, Manpower productivity, Production output lost due to want of tools.
Q = Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll, Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in BOP's/job work, Office area rework.
C = Buying cost/unit produced, Cost of logistics inbound/outbound, Cost of carrying inventory, Cost of communication, Demurrage costs.
D = Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading)
- Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions
- Delay in payments to suppliers
- Delay in information
S = Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, Safety of soft and hard data.
M = Number of kaizens in office areas.
How office TPM supports plant TPM :
Office TPM supports the plant, initially in doing Jishu Hozen of the machines (after getting training of Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the
- Initial stages machines are more and manpower is less, so the help of commercial departments can be taken, for this
- Office TPM can eliminate the lodes on line for no material and logistics.
Extension of office TPM to suppliers and distributors :
This is essential, but only after we have done as much as possible internally. With suppliers it will lead to on-time delivery, improved in-coming quality and cost reduction. With distributors it will lead to accurate demand generation, improved secondary distribution and reduction in damages during storage and handling. In any case we will have to teach them based on our experience and practice and highlight gaps in the system which affect both sides. In case of some of the larger companies, they have started to support clusters of suppliers.
PILLAR 8 - SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT:
- Zero accident,
- Zero health damage
- Zero fires.
In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis.
A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as well as workers. The committee is headed by Senior vice President ( Technical ). Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.
Difficulties faced in TPM implementation:
- Typically people show strong resistance to change.
- Many people treat it just another Program of the month without paying any focus and also doubt about the effectiveness.
- Not sufficient resources ( people,money,time,etc.) and assistance provided
- Insufficient understanding of the methodology and philosophy by middle management
- TPM is not a quick fix approach, it involve cultural change to the ways we do things
- Departmental barrier existing within Business Unit
Many people considered TPM activities as additional work/threat.
Today, with competition in industry at an all time high, TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. It has been proven to be a program that works. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants, but in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations. Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another "Program of the month" and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. TPM is not merely a concept but a practical and down-to-the-earth technique for achieving significant savings and increase in profits. If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part, an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected.